The Origin of Mucosal Immunology


The Origin of Mucosal Immunology

Mucosal immunology is the study of immune system responses that occur at mucosal membranes of the intestines urogenital tract and the respiratory system, i.e., surfaces that are in contact with the external environment. In healthy states, the mucosal immune system provides protection against pathogens but maintains a tolerance towards non harmful commensal  microbes and benign environmental substances.

Mucosal immune system is relatively undeveloped, but the colonization of intestinal flora promotes its development.  Mucosal vaccines would make immunization procedures easier, be better suited for mass administration, and most efficiently induce immune exclusion – a term coined for non‐inflammatory antibody shielding of internal body surfaces – mediated principally by secretory immunoglobulin.

The immune system is inextricably linked with many neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neuromuscular disorder affecting motor cell function with an average survival of 3 years from symptoms onset. In ALS, there is a dynamic interplay between the resident innate immune cells, that is, microglia and astrocytes, which may become progressively harmful to motor neurons.

 A Mucosa is a membrane that lines various cavities in the body and covers the surface of internal organs. It consists of one or more layers of epithelial cells overlying a layer of loose connective tissue.

Mucosal immunity, moderated by locally produced secretory LGA, is measured primarily by resistance to poliovirus replication and excretion in the pharynx and intestine after challenge with mOPV or tOPV or by measuring directly the secretory LGA, in stool or pharyngeal specimens.



Journal of Mucosal Immunology Research

John Geroge.